What are the characteristics of parenteral products?

Parenteral products are unique from any other type of pharmaceutical dosage form for the following reasons: • All products must be sterile. All products must be free from pyrogenic (endotoxin) contamination. Injectable solutions must be free from visible particulate matter. This includes reconstituted sterile powders.

What is parenteral preparation?

Parenteral preparations are sterile preparations containing one or more active ingredients intended for administration by injection, infusion or implantation into the body. They are packaged in either single-dose or multidose containers. Water for injections is used as the vehicle for aqueous injections.

What are advantages of parenteral preparation?

  • Can be used for drugs that are poorly absorbed, inactive or ineffective if given orally.
  • The IV route provides immediate onset of action.
  • The intramuscular and subcutaneous routes can be used to achieve slow or delayed onset of action.
  • Patient concordance problems can be avoided.

What are the advantages of parenteral medications?

Parenteral drugs can improve adherence, act immediately and allow the administrator to control drug delivery. One advantage of parenteral drugs is their ability to improve medication adherence. Some patients struggle with taking oral drugs as directed.

What are the parenteral routes of administration?

Administration by injection (parenteral administration) includes the following routes: Subcutaneous (under the skin) Intramuscular (in a muscle) Intravenous (in a vein)

What complications are possible when we use parenteral medications?

Additional complications may include nerve or tissue damage, medication being absorbed too fast or too slow, wrong location for the medication, pain, bleeding, or a sterile abscess (Perry et al., 2014).

What are parenteral medications?

Parenteral refers to the path by which medication comes in contact with the body. Parenteral medications enter the body by injection through the tissue and circulatory system.

What is parenteral medicine delivery?

Parenteral delivery is defined by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as drug administration by injection, infusion, and implantation or by some other route other than the alimentary canal.

When should parenteral nutrition be used?

People whose digestive systems either can’t absorb or can’t tolerate adequate food eaten by mouth use parenteral nutrition. When used outside the hospital, intravenous feeding is called home parenteral nutrition. Using home parenteral nutrition may be necessary for weeks or months, or in some cases for life.

What are the risks of parenteral nutrition?

Complications Associated with Total Parenteral Nutrition
  • Dehydration and electrolyte Imbalances.
  • Thrombosis (blood clots)
  • Hyperglycemia (high blood sugars)
  • Hypoglycemia (low blood sugars)
  • Infection.
  • Liver Failure.
  • Micronutrient deficiencies (vitamin and minerals)

What is the most common complication of parenteral nutrition?


Complications of the liver and biliary system are among the most common and serious problems associated with PN. Symptoms of PN-associated liver disease (PNALD) range from transient elevations in liver function tests (LFTs) to fibrosis, cirrhosis, and irreversible hepatic failure.

What is difference between enteral and parenteral nutrition?

Enteral nutrition generally refers to any method of feeding that uses the gastrointestinal (GI) tract to deliver part or all of a person’s caloric requirements. Parenteral nutrition refers to the delivery of calories and nutrients into a vein.

Why is TPN bad?

Other than those listed below, common complications of TPN include hypophosphatemia, hypokalemia, hyperglycemia, hypercapnia, decreased copper and zinc levels, elevated prothrombin time (if associated with liver injury), hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis and decreased gastrointestinal motility.

Can TPN cause hyperglycemia?

The increased risk of complications during TPN therapy can be related, among other factors, to the development of hyperglycemia, which occurs in 10–88% of hospitalized patients receiving TPN therapy (4–6).

How often do you check blood glucose?

Your doctor may recommend blood sugar testing four to 10 times a day if you have type 1 diabetes. You may need to test: Before meals and snacks. Before and after exercise.

Is there insulin in TPN?

Insulin is the treatment of choice to control hyperglycemia during TPN.

What type of insulin is used in TPN?

A pattern of basal insulin (using subcutaneous insulin glargine and regulating the stock as prandial), plus regular subcutaneous insulin as rescue, applied to total parenteral nutrition (TPN) should be as effective (glycemic control, variability) and safe (hypoglycemia) as the usual (regular insulin inside the TPN

How often do you check blood glucose with TPN?

After 36 hours of TPN, we recommend decreasing testing to twice a day (AM serum glucose and CBG 12 hours later) in patients without preexisting diabetes and those stable medically.